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A History of the Baptists Volume II
Of the United States From the First Settlement
of the Country to the Year 1845
John T. Christian
Professor of Christian History in the Bpatist Bible Institute,
New Orleans, Louisiana
Table of Contents
The Colonial Period
The First Baptists in America.
First Settlers—Separatists and Puritans—The Difference in the Parties—The Puritan a Church of England Man—Reformed—Character of the Puritans—Religious Intolerance—Frothingham—Neal—Ruffini—The Theocracy—The First Baptists—Their Character—Statistics.
The Baptists in Rhode Island.
Baptists Organize—Roger Williams—Relations to Sir Edward Coke—Arrival in New England—How Recognized—Estimates of Him—Pastor in Salem—Interference of theMagistrates—Plymouth—Returns to Salem—Before the Court in Boston—The Attitude of the People of Salem—His Banishment—His Popularity in Salem—Revocation of the Order of Banishment—Roman Catholics—Organization of the Church in Providence—The Baptism of Williams—The Form of Baptism—Abandons the Church Apostolic Succession and the Administration of Baptism—Irregularity—John Spilsbury—Further History of the Church—Pardon Tillinghast—Williams on Liberty—His Character—The Church at Newport—John Clarke—His Character—Recognition of Charles II—A New Charter—Rhode Island Persecuted by Other Colonies—Better Opinion of the State—Prosperity of the Baptists.
The Persecutions of the Baptists in Massachusetts.
Charter Rights—A Christian State—Violations of the Charter—Peter Oliver—Episcopal Worship not Allowed—The Browns—The Rise of the Baptists—The Baptists Denounced—Petitions Against Them—Lady Moody—William Witter—Thomas Painter—The Governor Acts—A Severe Law—Baptists Punished—The Law Explained—Goodman Johnson—Letters on Severity—Letter to Plymouth Colony—The Persecution of the Quakers—Dissenters Forced to Pay Taxes—The Opinion of Ruffini.
The First Baptist Churches in Massachusetts.
The First Church in the State—Swansea—Prosecutions of the Church—A Grant of Land—The Conditions of the Grant—The Church in Boston—Richard Mather—John Clarke—Obadiah Holmes and Crandall—They Are Arrested—The Whipping of Holmes—Letter to Kiffin—The Conversion of Henry Dunster—History of the Case—Removed as President of Harvard—Thomas Gould—The Church Formed—The Action of the Congregational Church—Persecutions—The Action of the Court—The Place of Meeting—The General Spirit of the Puritans—House of Worship—Some Changes in Sentiment—Their Punishment—The Witches Burned—The Opinion of the Baptists—William Melbourne—Robert Calef—The Power of the Theocracy Broken—The Later Laws.
The Baptists of Pennsylvania and the Jerseys.
William Penn—The "Frame of Government"—"The Great Law"—Liberal Provisions in Religion—Baptists from Rhode Island—Thomas Dungan—Cold Springs—Pennepek—Baptists from Wales, Ireland and England—Elias Keach—The Keithian Quakers—Mennonites—Baptists in Philadelphia—Jersey Baptists—Emigrants from Many Countries—The Congregationalists in Newark—A Curious Incident.
The Baptists of Maine and South Carolina.
Baptists in Kittery—The Letter of Humphrey Churchwood—William Screven—Before the Grand Jury—The Account of Joshua Millet—Screven Convicted of Contempt—Fined—His Character—Screven in South Carolina—The Opinion of His Enemies—Joseph Lord Writes to the Governor—The Settlement of Charleston—The Established Church—The Different Religious Sects—The First Baptists There—Lady Blake—Religious Conformity Demanded—No Other Baptist Church in the State—The Euhaw and Other Churches.
The Baptists in New York, Delaware, Connecticut and Vermont.
The Baptists in New York—Dutch Settlers—The Reformed Church—The Baptists Conventicles Suppressed—Lady Moody—Baptists in Flushing—Francis Doughty—Laws—Fines—Valentine—Wightman—The Various Sects—Governor Andros—Governor Hunter—First Baptist Church, New York—Nicholas Eyres—Fines—The Baptists in Central New York—Delaware—The Settlement of the State—The Welsh Tract Church—Elijah Baker and Philip Hughes—The Sounds Baptist Church—Connecticut—The Severity of the Laws—Early Baptist—The Slow Progress—Vermont—The Rise of the Baptists.
The Baptists in Maryland and New Hampshire.
Maryland—Claims of the Roman Catholics—Bishop Gilmour—Cardinal Gibbons—Lord Baltimore—His Views of Liberty—A Forced Baptism of Infants—The Protestant Charter—Rufuni—De Courcey—Religious Provisions of the Charter—The Testimony or Dr. Brownson—An Attempt to Establish the Roman Catholic Religion in l638—The Famous Act of l649—The Political Fortunes of Baltimore at the Time—Population Mostly Protestant—The Opinion of the Historians—The Law a Compromise Measure Between Roman Catholics and the Puritans—Governor Stone a Protestant—No Liberty of Conscience Allowed—Roman Catholic View—The Terrible Penalties—The Virgin Mary—The Sabbath—Imprisonment and Public Whippings—The Baptists in Maryland—New Hampshire—The Baptist Church at Newton—Other Baptist Churches.
The Philadelphia Association, Brown University, and Baptist Customs.
Organization of the Philadelphia Association—Quarterly Meetings—The Early Churches of the Body—Other Associations—Powers of an Association—The Declaration of the Association—The Separate Association in Virginia—John L. Waller—Discipline—Trouble in the Pennepek Church—The First Church, Charleston, S. C—Requirements to Unite With a Church—Ministerial Education—Thomas Hollis and Harvard College—Scholarships for Baptists—Abel Morgan—The Academy at Hopewell—Missions—Oliver Hart—John Gano—Circular Letter on Education—Isaac Eaton—Brown University—James Manning—Dr. Ezra Stiles—The Charter—The First Commencement of Brown—The College Suspended—Resolutions on Temperance—Early Customs of the Baptists.
The Great Awakening.
Baptists in Massachusetts—Position of the Puritans— Reaction Against the Standing Order—Thirteen Evils—The Account of Jonathan Edwards of Conditions—A Minister in New Hampshire—The Historian Trumbull—The Drink Habit—The Half Way Covenant—The Burning of Witches—The Awakening in Northampton—The Sermons of Edwards—The Revival Begins—The Effects of the Revival—George Whitefield—The Estimate of Benjamin Franklin—Manner of Preaching of Whitefield—Calvinism—The Baptists Calvinistic—Disorders—Persecutions of the Standing Order—Edwards Ejected from His Church—The Boston Gazette—Opposition of the Episcopalians—Action of the Connecticut Legislature—The New Lights—The New Lights Become Baptists—Bacon's Account—Great Growth of the Baptists.
The Baptists of Virginia.
The First Settlers of Virginia—The Episcopalians—Contrasts with New England—First Efforts of the Baptists—The Church of England Established by Law—The Virginia Charter—No Toleration Allowed—The Bloody Laws—"Neck and Heels" in Jail for Not Attending Church—The First Act of Parliament—The Salary of the Clergy Paid in Tobacco—Dissenters Must Depart the Colony—Whippings and Brandings—Ordination from the Church of England Demanded—Quakers and Baptists in Virginia—Infant Baptism—Presbyterians Tolerated for a Strange Reason—Baptists Slow in Entering the State—Marvelous Growth—Dr. Hawks—Bishop Perry—The Statement of Semple—The First Baptists from England—Robert Norden—Collection of Money in England for the Baptist—Church at Burley—Churches in Berkeley and Loudon Counties—The Statement of John Gano—David Thomas.
The Baptists in Virginia, North Carolina and Georgia.
The Third Company of Baptists in Virginia—The Separatist—Shubea1 Stearns—Daniel Marshall—Stearns Unites with the Baptist—North Carolina Settled—Individual Baptist—Paul Palmer—William Sojourner—Kehukee Association—Vanhorn and Miller—The Preaching of the Separatists—The Character of Stearns—History of the Movement—Many Notices of the Growth of the Baptist—Baptists in Georgia—Nicholas Bedgewood—Benjamin Stark—Botsford—Gano—Marshall Arrested—Kiokee Church—Samuel Harris—Elijah Craig—The Election of Bishops by the Baptists.
The Period of the American Revolution
The Baptists in the American Revolution.
The Thirteen Colonies— The Policy of England—The Discovery of the Valley of the Ohio—The Population of the Country—The Social, Political and Religious Conditions—Political and Religious Freedom—The Forces Against America—George Ill—The Attitude of Pope Pius VI—John Adams on the situation—The Position of Canada—The Quebec Act—The Roman Catholics of Great Britain—The Attitude of America Toward the Roman Catholics—The Mercenaries from Germany—The Roman Catholics of Ireland—Of America—The Clergy of the Established Church of England—Rev. Charles Inglis—Foreign Born Citizens— A Conspiracy Against Washington—William Pitt—The Baptists of England—Dr. Rippon—The Baptists of America—The Warren Association—The Philadelphia Association—An Appeal to the Continental Congress—Rhode Island Favors Independence—The Baptists of Virginia—A Memorial to Congress—Soldiers—Chaplains in the Army—Oliver Hart—John Hart.
The Baptists and the American Constitution.
The Constitution—The Ratification—Two Objections to the Constitution—Liberty not Sufficiently Guarded—Massachusetts—James Manning—Virginia—James Madison and John Leland—J. S. Barbour—Governor Briggs on Leland—Patrick Henry Against the Constitution—John Adam—And Religious Liberty—Thomas Jefferson—First Amendment to the Constitution—The Baptists of Virginia Propose the Amendment—The Forces Working for Liberty—Leonard Bacon—Ruffini.
The Period of Imprisonment and Strife in Virginia.
The Persecutions in Virginia— Imprisonments—Spotsylvania—Lewis Craig—Letter of John Blair—Waller forty—three Days in Jail—The Members of the Establishment Enraged—Others Imprisoned—William Fristoe on Persecutions—The Baptists Greatly Increase in Number—James Madison Writes Letters—The Action of the House of Burgesses—The Baptists Present Petitions—The Baptists Attack the Establishment.
The Baptists and the Destruction of the Establishment.
The Evils of the Establishment in Virginia—The Baptists Render Service to the Country—Dr. Hawks on the Situation—The Convention at Williamsburg—Petition of the Clergy—Terrible Charges Against the Baptists—The Statement of Fristoe—The Tax Law Suspended—Counter Memorials—The Law Repealed—The Statement of Rayner—The Historians Speak—The Glebe Lands—The General Assessment Proposed—The Presbyterians—The Reasons the Baptists Opposed the Measure—The Bill Examined and Rejected—The Bill of Thomas Jefferson—Bishop Perry on the Baptists—Jefferson and the Baptists—The Union of the Regular and Separate Baptists—The Terms of The Union—The Revival.
The Period of Growth and Organization
The Baptists in Kentucky.
The Ohio Valley—Kentucky—John Finlay—Hunters from North Carolina—Daniel Boone—Lexington—The Customs of the People—The County of Fincastle—Baptists the Pioneers—John Lythe holds "Divine Service" at Harrodsburg—Bishop Smith on the Baptists—Thomas Tinsley and William Hickman—John Taylor—William Marshall—Severn's Valley Church—Cedar Creek Church—The Traveling Church—Lewis Craig—Other Famous Preachers—The Negro Servant Peter—The Land and Water Routes to Kentucky—Calvinistic and Separate Churches—Religious Conditions—The Revivals—John Gano—The Elkhorn Association—Foot Washing—United Baptists—Augustine Eastin and James Garrard—Cooper Run Church—A Horrible Murder—The Unitarian Movement—The Universalists.
The Baptists of the Ohio Valley.
The Ohio Valley—The Conditions—George Rogers Clark—The American. Settlers—The French Settlers—The First Churches in Ohio—John Smith and James Lee—The Indians—The Miami Association—Illinois—J. M. Peek—Indiana—Isaac McCoy and George Waller—Judge Holman—Missouri—Hardships—Bethel Church—Fee Fee Church—Tennessee—Middle Tennessee—Alabama—Revivals in Alabama.
The Baptists in Mississippi and Louisiana.
Spanish America—The Inquisition—Florida—New Mexico—The French Occupy Louisiana—The Conditions—The Mississippi Country—The Claim of Great Britain—The Uprising Against Spain—Emigrants in the Natchez Country—Richard Curtis—Journey by Flatboats—Religious Liberty—Salem Church—Meetings Held at Night—The Spanish Officers—The Flight of Curtis—In South Carolina—The Return of Curtis—The Dissensions of the Salem Church—The Baptists Enter Louisiana—Mills and Smith—The Conditions in Louisiana—Persecutions—Bailey E. Chancy—Half Moon Bluff Church—Baptists in New Orleans.
The Great Revival of 1800.
The Deplorable Conditions of the Country—Low State of Morals—Terrible Practices—Deistical Opinions of the French and Indian Wars—Alliance of America and France—The Effects of French Infidelity—Thomas Paine—Infidel Clubs—Illuminism—Want of Religious Instruction—Baptist and Presbyterian Ministers—Dull Preaching—Conditions in the Colleges—Kentucky and Tennessee—Logan County—The Great Revival—James McGready—His Sermons—The Camp Meeting at Casper River—The Account of McGready—The Meeting Described—Barton W. Stone—Other Meetings—Extravagance—Lorenzo Dow—The Jerks and Other Violent Exercises—Disorders—Such Meetings Continued for Years—The Revival Did Great Good—Testimonies—Results Among the Baptists—Effects Felt Throughout the United States.
The Rise of Foreign Missions Among American Baptists.
The Opinion of Southey—The Baptists of the United States Missionary—Had not Undertaken Foreign Mission Work—The Appeals of Carey and Others—The Contributions to India—Early Missionary Enterprises—No General Organization—The Spirit of the Times—The Congregationalists—The American Board of Commissioners—Young Men in the Andover Theological Seminary—Hall, Mills, Judson, Nott and Luther Rice—Americans Seek to Be Sent from England—The Missionaries Ordained—They Sail for Foreign Lands—Adoniram Judson—Studies the Subject of Baptism—Becomes a Baptist—Informs the American Board—Appeals to the Baptists—Accepted by the Baptists—Judson in Burmah—The Return of Luther Rice.
The General Convention of the Baptist Denomination in the United States.
Luther Rice—His Character—Kingsford's Account—Note in His Journal—Before the American Board—Appeal to the Baptists—The Savannah Baptist Society—Organization of the Triennial Convention—The Numbers of the Baptists Small—The Messengers—The Constitution—Dr. Furman Preaches the Sermon—Judson Accepted as Missionary—Hough and Wife Sent to India—Domestic Missions—The Program—Indian Missions—Isaac McCoy—Rice Visits the Churches—A Great Crisis—A Resume of the Work.
The Anti-Effort Secession from the Baptists.
The Rise of the Division—The Rancor of the Discussions—The Misunderstandings—Opposition to Missions—To Education—Masonry—Drinking—"Old School Baptists"—The Opposition Widespread—Bebee in The Signs of the Times—Tennessee.—Arkansas—Kentucky—Hill Grove Church—Otter Creek Association—Georgia—Hepziban Association—Yellow River—Flint River—Alabama—Virginia—Reasons for the Divisions— State of Religion—John Taylor—Samuel Trott—Daniel Parker—Illinois—Peck and Parker—Indiana—Texas—Sad Results.
The Schism of Alexander Campbell.
Rise of the "Current Reformation"—Calvinism—Arminianism—Alexander Campbell—In Pennsylvania—A Presbyterian—Unites with the Baptists—Described by Archbishop Purcell—Debate with John Walker—Barton W. Stone and the Reformation—Campbell and Stone Unite Their Forces—The Ten Articles—The Debate with McCalla—Immense Crowds—Peculiar Views—A Great Sensation—Prominent Ministers—His Great Talent in Debate—His Views Slowly Introduced—Baptism for the Remission of Sins—Call to the Ministry—Paid Ministry—Poorly Prepared Ministers—The Separation—Action of the Associations—The Account of Dr. W. C. Buck—The Increase of the Baptists.
A Number of Baptist Activities.
Alien Immersions—J. L. Reynolds—Crosby—Philadelphia Association—The Case of James Hutchinson—Jesse Mercer—The Christian Review—Benedict—Education—Colombian College—The Triennial Convention on Education—An Address—The Effect of the Revolutionary War—The Charleston Association—Baptist Education Society in the Middle States—The Massachusetts Education Society—A School of Theological Instruction in Philadelphia—Washington, D. C.—The Progress of the Colombian College—President Monroe—The Resignation of Rice—Newton Theological Institution—Hamilton College—The Education Society in South Carolina and Georgia—Mercer College—Other Colleges—State Conventions—The General Convention of Western Baptists—Home Missions in the West—Sunday Schools—Baptist Publication Society—Newspapers and Periodicals—Conclusion.
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