The
CAUSE OF GOD AND TRUTH.

Part 4
Chapter 2—Of Redemption

Section 12—Eusebius Pamphilus Caesariensis. A.D. 330.


Eusebius took the name of Pamphilus from Pamphilus the martyr, his intimate friend and acquaintance:[1] he lived in the time of Constantine the Great, and was very dear unto and highly esteemed of by that emperor He was made bishop of Caesarea in Palestine about A.D. 315, and died A. D. 339 or 340.[2] He was a man of great learning, and wrote much, and several of his works still remain. Some testimonies are taken from him by M. Daille[3] showing that the sacrifice of Christ was offered up for all mankind, in the room and stead of all men, and is the expiation of the whole world. That he uses such expressions is not denied; but in what sense he used them should be considered. When he says, that the ransom of Christ is for the souls of all men, which he understands equally of Jews and Gentiles, he does not mean every individual of both, only some, as appears from what he immediately subjoins:[4] "by whose (Christ's) divine and, mystical doctrine, pantev hmeiv oi ex eqnwn, ‘all we who are from among the Gentiles,' find the forgiveness of former sins; whence also those of the Jews, oi eis anton egpikotes,‘who hope in him' are freed from the curse of Moses." And in another place,[5] he says, monois tois dia Christon ex apanton ton ethnon,"to them only who are taken by Christ out of all nations, can the blessing made to Abraham concerning all nations agree. And as to the Jews, he observes,[6] that "few of them believe in the Savior and our Lord, and thereby obtain the promised spiritual redemption; for God did not promise, that the coming of Christ should be salutary to the whole nation of the Jews without distinction; all' oligois, to komide apantois, tois eis ton Sotera kai Kurion emon pepisteukosin,but to a few, and very scarce indeed, even to them that should believe on the Savior and our Lord." Moreover, when he says that the sacrifice of Christ is the expiation of the whole world, it is plain, from other passages of his, that he means only them that believe for having cited John 1:29, 1 John 2:2, 1 Corinthians 1:30, he adds,[7] which "teach that his (Christ's) coming is the filling up and finishing of the sin of those who have done wickedly against him; and also the removal and purgation of the sins, and the expiation of the unrighteousness, ton eis anton pepisteukoton, of those that should believe in him." And in another place[8] he says, "Wherefore his (Christ's) mighty one left him, willing that he should go down to death, even the death of the cross, and be shown to be the ransom of the whole world, kai katharsion genesthai ten ton eis auton pisteusanton zoes,and become the expiation of the life of them that believe in him." Besides, it is abundantly evident that he restrains the incarnation, sufferings, and death of Christ, and the salutary effects thereof, to the church, to them that believe in Christ, fear and obey him. Having mentioned[9] those words in Isaiah 9:6, To us a child is born,etc., he puts this question: "To what us, e tois auton pepisteukosi,unless to them that believe in him? but to them that do not believe in him he is the author of fire and burning." And in another place[10] he says, that "the cause of Christ's coming is the redemption ton di autou sothesomenon,of those that were to be saved by him." And elsewhere[11] he observes, that Isaiah preached the Gospel to the soul that was formerly barren and forsaken of God, or rather, ten ex ethnon ekklesian,"to the church from among the Gentiles; for seeing, ta panta di auten o Christos upemieinen, Christ endured all things for that, he rightly adds, after what he had foretold concerning him, Rejoice, O barren,etc. Again, he, having cited Genesis 49:11, makes[12] this note upon it: "See how, as by things hidden, he signifies his mystical sufferings, in which, as in a laver, he hath washed away the ancient filth, ton eis auton pepisteukoton,of those that would believe in him." On the text in Malachi 4:2, he makes[13] this observation: "Whom the Father has begotten he promises shall arise, ou tois pasin, alla monois,not to them all, but to them only that fear his name." In another place he says,[14] "The everlasting High Priest, and who is called the Father's Christ,takes the care of the whole, and is consecrated to the Father, uper ton upekoon apanton, ‘for all them that obey;' and he alone shows himself mild and propitious unto all." It is also very manifest, that Eusebius did not think that the effects of Christ's death reach unto or were designed to reach unto many, or the same all, as the effects of Adam's sin do; since he observes,[15] that Christ "became obedient unto death, that as death by one man's sinning has ruled over the whole kind, so likewise eternal life might reign by his grace ton eis auton pepisteuonton,over those that believe in him, and by him commended as known to God and to his Father." Once more, in another work[16] of his, he takes notice of a law that Constantine made, "that no Christian should serve the Jews; for," says he, "it is not lawful tous upo tou Soteros lelutromenous,that those who are redeemed by the Savior should be under a yoke of bondage to the murderers of the prophets and of the Lord." Whence it appears that he thought the Jews were not redeemed by Christ, only such as are Christians.

As for the article in the creed drawn up by the Nicene fathers A.D. 395, which is next produced by M. Daille,[17] and is thus expressed; "We believe in one Lord Jesus Christ, the Son of God, who came down and became incarnate, and was made man, di emas tous anthropous kai did ten emeteran soterian,for us men and for our salvation;" it is no other than what every body believes and agrees to; and is so far from militating against the particular scheme, that it is rather a testimony for it, since the phrases us men and our salvation design those that believe in Christ the Son of God, to whom they relate. What is next cited[18] from Juveneus, a Spanish presbyter, who flourished under Constantine, about A. D. 330, does not at all serve the general scheme, but the contrary, it being only a paraphrase of John 3:16, after this manner: "For God loved the world with such a love that his only offspring came down on earth, credentes Domino vitae junctura perenni,to join them that believe in the Lord to everlasting life." Anthony, the patriarch of the Eremites, who died A.D. 358, is next[19] mentioned; who, in one of his epistles, says, "that God appointed his only begotten Son for the salvation of the whole world, and did not spare him for our sakes, but delivered him up for the salvation of us all,"which are almost the very express words of the Scripture in 1 John 2:2, Romans 8:32, to which no doubt he refers, and are capable of being understood in the same sense with them; and that Anthony did not design every individual of mankind, but only some, appears by what he immediately adds[20] "and hath gathered us by the word of his power, ex omnibus regionibus,out of all countries, from one end of the world to the other;" and could he be thought to mean all the individuals of human nature, for whom God appointed and delivered up his Son for the salvation of, yet the general benefit and salvation which all were to have by him, seems, according to him, to be no other than the resurrection from the dead; for a little after, he observes that "Christ is the resurrection of all, destroying him that had the power of death."


ENDNOTES:

[1] Hieron. Catal. Script. Eccl. sect. 91.

[2] Vide Fabricii Bibl. Graec. 1. 5, c. 4, s. l, p. 30, 31.

[3] Apolog. p. 773, etc.

[4] Euseb. Demonstr. Evangel. 1. 1, c. 10, p. 37.

[5] Ibid. 1. 2, c. 1, p. 45.

[6] Ibid. c. 3, p. 62, 63.

[7] Ibid. 1.8, p. 385.

[8] Ibid. 1. 10, p. 495.

[9] Ibid. 1. 7, p. 339, 340, et 1. 9, p. 440.

[10] Ibid. 1. 6, c. 7, p. 265.

[11] Ibid. 1. 3, p. 101.

[12] Ibid. 1. 8, p. 380.

[13] Ibid. 1. 5, c. 29, p. 254.

[14] Ibid. 1. 4. c. 10, p. 164.

[15] Euseb. de. Ecclesiastes Theolog 1. 1, c. 13, p. 75.

[16] Ibid. de Vita Constantin. 1. 4, c. 27, p. 538, 539.

[17] Apolog. p. 775.

[18] Ibid. 776.

[19] Ibid.

[20] Epist. 4, p. 73.